References Cited

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Peer Reviewed

Barnett, T., Malone, R., Pennell, W., Stammer, D., Semtner, B., & Washington, W. (2004). The Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources in the West: Introduction and Overview. Climatic Change, 62, 1-11.

Clow, D. W. (2009). Changes in the Timing of Snowmelt and Streamflow in Colorado: A Response to Recent Warming. Journal of Climate, 23, 2293-2306.

Cook, E. R., Woodhouse, C. A., Eakin, C. M., Meko, D. M., & Stahle, D. W. (2004). Long-Term Aridity Changes in the Western United States. Science, 306, 1015-1018.

Field, Jason P, Jayne Belnap, David D Breshears, Jason C Neff, Gregory S Okin, Jeffrey J Whicker, Thomas H Painter, Sujith Ravi, Marith C Reheis, and Richard L Reynolds. In press (2009). The ecology of dust. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. [doi:10.1890/090050]

Neff, J. C., Ballantyne, A. P., Farmer, G. L., Mahowald, N. M., Conroy, J. L., Landry, C. C., et al. (2008). Increasing eolian dust deposition in the western United States linked to human activity. Nature Geoscience, 1, 189-195.

Neff, J. C., Reynolds, R. L., Belnap, J., & Lamothe, P. (2005). Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah. Ecological Applications, 15, 87-95.

Painter, T. H., Barrett, A. P., Landry, C. C., Neff, J. C., Cassidy, M. P., Lawrence, C. R., et al. (2007). Impact of disturbed desert soils on duration of mountain snow cover. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L12502.

Reynolds, R., Belnap, J., Reheis, M., Lamothe, P., & Luiszer, F. (2001). Aeolian dust in Colorado Plateau soils: Nutrient inputs and recent change in source. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 7123-7127.

Steltzer, H., Landry, C., Painter, T. H., Anderson, J., & Ayres, E. (2009). Biological consequences of earlier snowmelt from desert dust deposition in alpine landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 11629-11634.

Mass Media

Arizona Hopes Dust Storms Shutting I-40 Have Ended by Michele Fuetsch. http://www.ttnews.com/articles/printnews.aspx?storyid=24594. June 14, 2010.

Climate change, water shortages conspire to create 21st century Dust Bowl by Scott Streater. http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/05/14/14greenwire-climate-change-water-shortages-conspire-to-cre-12208.html. May 14, 2009.

Desert Dust Alters Ecology of Colorado Alpine Meadows by NSF. http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=115053&org=NSF&from=news. June 29, 2009.

Dust in the wind and the water by Paul Larmer. http://www.hcn.org/issues/42.10/dust-in-the-wind-and-the-water. June 7, 2010.

Dust in West up 500 percent in past 2 centuries, says CU-Boulder study. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/uoca-diw022208.php#. February 24, 2008.

Dust Reduces Snow Cover in the San Juans. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7842. July 7, 2007.

Dust speeds Colorado snow melt, shortens ski mountaineering season by Colorado Daily Staff. http://www.coloradodaily.com/outdoor-recreation/ci_12962868?source=rss#axzz0tUlizOJT. June 17, 2009.

Dust Storms Escalate, Prompting Environmental Fears by Juliet Eilperin. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/22/AR2009042203685.html. April 22, 2009.

Dust storms speed snowmelt in Colorado by Nicholas Riccardi. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/may/24/nation/na-pink-snow24. May 24, 2009.

Dust, snow make for problematic mix for skiers by Scott Willoughby. http://www.denverpost.com/sports/ci_14917371. April 21, 2010.

Dusting off the Backcountry by Jesse Huffman. http://espn.go.com/action/snowboarding/blog/_/post/5148408. April 29, 2010.

Dusting off wilderness by Will Sands. http://www.durangotelegraph.com/telegraph.php?inc=/10-04-22/coverstory.htm. April 22, 2010.

Dust-on-Snow: On Spring Winds, Something Wicked This Way Comes by Cheryl Dybas. http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=116707. April 2, 2010.

Dust-storm spawned pileup on I-70 kills two by Howard Pankratz. http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_11491639. January 19, 2009.

Group studies dust effects by Dale Rodebaugh. http://www.durangoherald.com/sections/News/2010/06/24/Group_studies_dust_effects/. June 24, 2010.

High Peaks, Dirty Snow by Allen Best. http://www.fseee.org/component/content/article/200240. Winter 2008.

Scientists explore link between dust, snowpack by Bob Berwyn. http://www.summitdaily.com/article/20090924/NEWS/909239989/1078&ParentProfile=1055. September 24, 2009.

Study shows desert dust impacts snowpack, plant life by Amy Joi O’Donoghue. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/print/705313732/Study-shows-desert-dust-impacts-snowpack-plant-life.html. June 30, 2009.

Study shows desert dust impacts snowpack, plant life by Amy Joi O’Donoghue. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/print/705313732/Study-shows-desert-dust-impacts-snowpack-plant-life.html. June 30, 2009.

Team Devises Technique to Predict Dust Storms with Infrared Satellite by the University of Pittsburgh. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100706103414.htm. July 6, 2010.

That dust on the snow around Aspen is bad, researchers say by Carolyn Sackariason. http://www.aspentimes.com/article/20100413/NEWS/100419966. April 13, 2010.

Valley Fever sweeping through Arizona by Steve Kuzj. http://www.abc15.com/dpp/news/health/valley-fever-sweeping-through-arizona. July 8, 2010.

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Text Box: Figure 1 displays the reflective difference between clean and dirty (dust-laden) snow in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado [courtesy of Painter et al., 2007] Below are two images (Figure 2) displaying the San Juan Mountains. The first image was taken on April 12, 2005, after four dust events, via the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite. The second image was taken on April 12, 2006, after eight dust events, via MODIS on NASA’s Terra satellite. Comparing the two images, one can see evidence the snowpack in 2006, which had double the amount of dust events, had a much smaller spatial extent than at the same time in 2005. The abundance of dust as well as weather conditions (e.g. minimal cloud cover) allowed the snowpack to receive ample sunlight and melt at a quicker pace[1].